Mencius contributed to a regenerative and innovative interpretation of Confucianism, making it a relatively complete thought system. Contemporary neo-Confucian scholars all have dedicated themselves to continuing and reviving the tradition handed down by Confucius and Mencius. While the world is now amid major changes unseen in a century, we see confusions in people's minds, endless quarrels over merits and shortcomings of different social systems, and restructuring of power in the international arena. Mindful of the spirit of our times in reinterpretation of Mencius's thoughts on human nature, a people- oriented approach and benevolent governance, and just war, we may find feasible solutions to enlightening minds, and improving and developing social systems and international relations. Mencius-A Modern Translation and Contemporary Interpretation, the third book of “The Chinese Classics Series” published by Yew Chung Publishing House (previous titles are The Analects and Laozi and Zhuangzi), is a serious attempt in this direction.